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8被动语态,2012年6月英语四级翻译答案及解析

来源:http://www.sswank.com 作者:www.0805.com 时间:2019-11-29 11:05

  2012年6月16日全国大学英语四级考试已结束,本次考试报考人数达924万人。以下是英语四级翻译答案及解析(沪江版),以供广大考生参考:

1 新开始

告别熟悉的故乡亲朋,穿越拥挤的高速车站,很多人今天开始开工了。新的开始,希望有新的希望和进步。

十天搞定英语语法系列原定是一天一更,十天完毕。但是回乡省亲和迎来送往把我的时间彻底分割,无法获得写作要求的安静,因此到今天,才准备第三篇。

既然已经开始上班,那就抓紧业余的时间,认真做内容,不再管多久能完工。或许,这一期语法专题写完,又会有新的思路视野。

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作为新的开始,本文也有两个新的要素:动漫配图和时文转写。

前者,是专门用链接制作的,适合充当PPT的标题,也可以做图片,富有冲击力。

后者,是选自中国日报的文章,讲述了贺岁档电影破纪录的票房收入。该文紧贴时事,不仅可以帮助我们熟悉电影的基本表达法,更可用来练习被动语态。原文见Six films top 6.3b yuan over holiday。


  88.More than my car cheap one thousand pounds(比我的车便宜1000英镑)

B.is speaking 

  89. This TV program is quite boring. We might as well listen to the music (不妨听听音乐)。

4. 实操

将选自中国日报的下列例句改写成被动或主动语态。

4.1 Six Chinese movies raked in about 6.38 billion yuan ($1 billion) in total just a week after their release on the first day of Spring Festival.

4.2 According to Maoyan, theaters in third- and fourth-tier cities drew the most crowds during Spring Festival.

4.3 Jiaolong Commando Unit leaders and veterans of the Jiaolong special forces unit trained the cast in advance and followed the film crew during shooting for guidance.

4.4 Many movie theaters have been constructed in third- and fourth-tier cities in recent years, providing more movie screens for patrons to choose from.

4.4 Most premier tickets were sold out a day in advance.

Reference:

4.1 About 6.38 billion yuan ($1 billion) was raked in in total just a week after their release on the first day of Spring Festival.

4.2 According to Maoyan, the most crowds were drawn by theaters in third- and fourth-tier cities during Spring Festival.

4.3 The cast was trained and the film crew was followe by Jiaolong Commando Unit leaders and veterans of the Jiaolong special forces unit in advance during shooting for guidance.

4.4 Third- and fourth-tier cities have constructed many movie theaters in recent years, providing more movie screens for patrons to choose from.

4.4 The cinemas sold out most premier tickets a day in advance.

多加练习,很快就掌握了。


希望你学有所得。

  90.The lights were on, the door open(灯亮着,门开着)

4.不定式的被动结构:动词不定式的被动语态为“to be  +过去分词”。例如: 

  88. Fred bought a car last week. It is £1,000 cheaper than mine(比我的车便宜一千英镑)。

2. 被动语态的骨骼

任何一个语法点,都有其精髓。

而被动语态的精髓,就是它的结构。

请参照图片。

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被动语态核心结构

举例来说,现在完成时的被动语态。

原句也就是主动语态的句子:I have run out of my holidays.

被动语态:My holidays have been run out of. 其中,have/has的单复数由主语单复数决定,been不能少,done必须是原句谓语动词(run)的过去分词(run)。过去分词这一块自己可以单独找一下不规则动词表记忆一下。也可以参考英语不规则动词表。

记住结构和不规则动词变化,完成三分之一的内容。

中间的三分之一,是动词和宾语的搭配。什么意思?被动语态必须是有动宾搭配,才能成立。也就是说,不及物动词本身没有被动。但是如果加上介词,就有了。这也就是为什么刚才的例句My holidays have been run out of中,of不能省略的原因。

同理,诸如I came to Beijing yesterday.这样的句子是没有被动的,因为come后面不能直接接东西,to Beijing是一个表示地点的状语,无论形成像“run out of+宾语”这样的结构。同理,下面例句的介词也不能丢。

We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.

He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.

The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.

所以,像happen, break down, come out这样的不及物动词,都是没有被动的。而有一些加介词有被动的搭配,介词万万不能少。

掌握了这两点,被动语态基本上懂个八九不离十了。


  特别说明:由于各方面情况的不断调整与变化,新浪网所提供的所有考试信息仅供参考,敬请考生以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

  be used as被当作(作为)……来使用 

  90. He left his office in a hurry, with lights on and doors open(灯亮着,门开着)。

3. 特殊用法

语法当中,除了符合通用规则的大部分项目,总是有一部分特例。对于特例,我们倡导的是造句记忆和单选练习。通过大量的类似练习建立条件反射,从而彻底拿下。

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被动语态中英文表述

被动语态的特例不多。如下。

3.1 动词的主动形式表示被动之意

1)某些连系动词,如:look, feel, smell,sound, prove等。

The flower smells sweet.

Maria proves very patient and warm-hearted.

2)表示主语内在“品质”或“性能”的动词,虽然可以是及物动词,但这时用作不及物动词,如lock, shut, close, open, move, read, write, sell, wash, clean, draw, cut, translate, burn, run, ride, begin, end, operate。

The sentences translate hard.

The door won’t shut.

3)某些动词用在句型“主+谓+主补”时,如wear,blow,prove等。    

The door blew open.

3.2 “动词+反身代词”与“be+过去分词”结构

注意下面短语:devote oneself to (献身于) seat oneself (就坐) dress oneself (穿衣), amuse oneself (自娱自乐) lose oneself (迷路) prepare oneself for (做好心理准备), concern oneself about (担心)

这些短语经常用被动结构表示主动意义。

They were seated in the front of the hall.

He was concerned about his work.

My students are well prepared for the test.

His mother is dressed in white at the party.

3.3 感官动词(see, hear为主)或使役动词(make/let/have)使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。

A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

3.4 It is said/ reported/believed, etc. + 从句的变化

“It is said/ reported/believed, etc. + 从句”表示据说/据报道/据信......,此句型可以变成从句主语作主语的句型:sb. +be said/ reported/believed, etc. +不定式。如果原来从句的谓语动作已经完成,不定式用完成式;如果从句的谓语动作是经常性动作或还没有完成,用不定式的一般式。

It is said that James is an expert on DNA. = James is said to be an expert on DNA.

It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. = The boy is said to have passed the national exam.

以上就是主要的特殊用法。


你是第几次参加四六级考试?

  be made in由(某地)制造 

你如何看待大学英语四六级证书?

分享到:

  He said that some new factories had been built in the city.

  【点评】with短语做伴随状语,逻辑主语和表语之间的系动词省略。

  87.Long time no watering(好长时间没有浇水了)

  将主动语态变被动语态应注意几个特殊情况:

  【点评】简单的比较级,cheaper than。不需要重复car,直接用mine代替my car。

  89.May wish to listen to the music(不妨听听音乐)

  The building has been built in 2000.

  【点评】might as well“不妨”,原句中有might。listen to the music,听音乐。

;););););)

  be made by被(某人)制造 

  特别说明:由于各方面情况的不断调整与变化,新浪网所提供的所有考试信息仅供参考,敬请考生以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

  91.To have been translated into many languages(已经被译成多种语言)

1.不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者; 

  【点评】be said to后面跟动词原型,“已经被译”,用完成时被动语态have been translated,介词用into。

你如何看待大学英语四六级证书?

  一般将来时:shall  /will be  +p.p. 

  87. Those flowers looked as if they hadn't been watered for a long time(好长时间没有浇水了)。

  相关报道:第一时间解读四六级真题答案

1.将主动语态变被动语态的基本方法为: 

;););););)

    更多信息请访问:新浪四六级频道 四六级论坛

  A new pen ______ ______ ______ her by her mother. 

分享到:

    2012年6月16日全国大学英语四级考试已结束,本次考试报考人数达924万人。以下是2012年6月英语四级翻译答案(网友版),以供广大考生参考:

2.短语动词的被动语态:在变为被动语态时,要将短语动词视为一个整体,其后的介词或副词不能省去。例如: 

2012年6月英语四级考后难度调查

2012年6月英语四级考后难度调查

  He ______ ______ ______ swim in Qianling Lake yesterday. 

  【点评】they即flowers做主语,用被动语态。一段时间应用完成时,looked过去式相比,后面应该过去完成时。

2)用法不同:过去分词作表语时可以被 so,very,too等程度副词修饰,而被动语态则不能用so,very,too修饰,而需用much,very much,so much,too much修饰。试比较: 

你是第几次参加四六级考试?

  被动语态:杂志(宾语)不准被带走.These magazines must not be taken out of the reading room.

www.0805.com,  91.The famous novel is said to have been translated into multiple languages(已经被译成多种语言)。

  一般现在时:am/is/are+p.p. 

    更多信息请访问:新浪四六级频道 四六级论坛

  2.Has anybody fed the birds?

例3.

1)含义不同:被动语态强调动作,重点说明动作由谁完成、怎样完成;而过去分词作表语通常用来描写情景,叙述人或事物的特征及所处的状态。试比较: 

A.must 

      9、含情态动词的被动式:can/may/must + be + done

  四、各种时态的被动语态举例  一般地讲,被动语态可用于英语的各种时态。为了能准确地运用被动语态,重点是要掌握be动词的各种时态变化。各种时态的被动语态举例如下: 

D.注意特例 

  (选C。考查一般过去时的被动语态) 

初中教材中与被动语态相关的句型有: 

C.was told 

① He told us a story.(变被动语态) 

  be used to do sth.被用来做某事 

  →We were told a story(by him).或:A story was told to us by him. 

C.speaks 

  Where ______ vegetables ______ ?(填were;grown) 

      3、现在进行时的被动语态: am / is / are + being +  动词的过去分词 

  I was so much surprised at the scene that I didn't know what to do.我被那种场面搞得大吃一惊,不知所措。(被动语态) 

  五、如何将主动语态变成被动语态

  ①将间接宾语变为主语,直接宾语保持不变;

3.be used for被用来…… 

② The boy ______ to get supper ready after school. 

  被动语态:这座桥被建造。This bridge was built last year.

② Her mother gave her a new pen.(变被动语态) 

  His desk was cleaned just now.

  7.Someone must take care of the children when we go out.

  Your watch has been mended already.

  被动语态:你(宾语)被邀请。 You has been invited to a lunch party by Xiao Wang.

  The broken pottery ______ ______ ______ ______ at once.(同义句) 

      (提示) the light - must have - be - turn on

[B] 

  六、练习

  (填was seen to) 

4.It is said that...据说…… 

A.熟记结构 

E.注意区别 

  被动语态:一枚奖章(宾语)被授给了他.A medal was given to him for his wonderful work.

  过去将来时:should  /would be  +p.p. 

① You must throw the broken pottery away at once. 

  I didn’t know that my watch had been mended.

C.are taken away 

  (填be taken good care of) 

D.built 

  He thought that your watch was going to be mended after an hour.

  主动语态:他们授给他(宾语)一枚奖章(宾语).They gave him a medal for his wonderful work.

  三、被动语态的运用  什么情况下要用被动语态呢?一般地说,有下面几种情况:  (1)不知道谁是动作的执行者或没有必要。例如:  Paper is made from wood.  (纸是由木材生产出来的。)  The house is quite old. It was built in 1950.  (这座房子太旧了。它是1950年建成的。)  He was wounded in the fight.  (他在战斗在受伤了。)  Electricity is used to run machines.  (电是用来开动机器的。)  (2)需要强调动作的对象时。例如:  Calculator can't be used in the maths exam. 

F.牢记(相关)句型 

  Some trees are being cut down in the park.

  被动语态复习 ABC

  被动语态常用于以下两种情况:

  ②将直接宾语变为主语,间接宾语用介词to或for引导。例如: 

B.build 

[C] 

  The station was built in 1928.

  5.Someone must have turned on the light without your notice.

  主动语态:人们说英语。People speak English in many countries.

      4、过去进行时的被动语态: was / were + being +  动词的过去分词 

  现在完成时:have  /has been  +p.p. 

  (A) will / shall + be + 动词的过去分词 

1.含双宾语的主动结构变为被动结构时,有两种方法: 

  ______ ______ ______ that ______ ______ is being ______ over the Changjiang River in Nanjing. 

  Someone saw him swim in Qianling Lake yesterday.(变被动 

  (填was given to) 

A.for keeping 

例2.

  The tree ______ ______ by that boy. 

      1、从句子意义上说,就是重新找出“什么事物”是“被完成”的。  例1.

  9.You may write this letter in pencil.

  This car is made inChina.

A.be building 

  这棵树是那个男孩弄断的。

5.以疑问代词开头的疑问句转换成被动句时要注意词序:应将主动句中的疑问代词改为介词by的宾语,但仍然放在句子开头。例如: 

  The window is broken by him.窗子被他打破了。(被动语态) 

      8、过去完成时的被动语态:had + been +  动词的过去分词 

  Who has broken the cup?(改为被动语态) 

  被动语态的结构为“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词(p.p)”。被动语态的不同时态是通过be的时态变化来表示的,其人称和数方面应与主语保持一致。其具体变化为: 

A.made of;made by 

B.must be 

2.强调动作的承受者。例如: 

  被动语态:英语被说。 English is spoken in many countries..

③据说在南京长江上又在建一座桥。 

  The children will ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ (by her). 

  (填was broken) 

  The window is broken.窗子破了。(系表结构) 

  (他在比赛中获得了第一。)  (3)为了使语气婉转,避免提到是谁做的这件事。例如:  The construction of the new lab must be completed by the end of next month.  (新实验室必须在下个月底前完工。)

3.含有复合宾语的主动结构变被动结构时,通常将宾语变为被动句的主语,而宾语补足语就成为主语补足语。注意:省略to的不定式作宾补时,不定式符号to必须补上。例如: 

② Where did they grow vegetables?(改为被动语态) 

  Some new factories have been built in the city since last year.

      (提示) the problem -be - discuss

① Chinese ______ by the largest number of people. 

  3.People will never forget the accident.

[D] 

  Some babies were being looked after by Miss Chen last year.

  →By whom has the cup been broken? 

① This dictionary mustn't ______ from the library. 

1.be covered with被……覆盖 

  Our classroom is cleaned every day.

  Some new factories will be built in our city this year.

  被动语态:他(宾语)被授予一枚奖章. He was given a medal for his wonderful work.

  被动语态和过去分词作表语的区别:

  She said that some new factories would be built soon in our city.

  4.They are repairing the car in the garage.

  6.They have found ways to make waste water clean.

D.is spoken 

A.were told 

  A new factory was being built in our city at that time.

  A new factory is being built in our city now.

D.tells 

B.as keeping 

①—Your coat looks nice.Is it ______ cotton? 

      6、过去将来时的被动语态: (1).would / should + be +  动词的过去分词 (2).was / were +going to be +  动词的过去分词.

  主动语态:我们造这座桥。We built this bridge last year.

一、什么是被动语态?  英语中时态很多,但语态不多,只有两种,即:主动语态和被动语态。所谓“被动语态”,相当于中文中常说的“被……”、“由……”的句式,如:“他的自行车被偷了。”,“这座楼房是由他们建造的。”二、被动语态的结构  那么,英语中被动语态是怎么样构成的呢?请看下面的例句(注意划线部分):  His bicycle was stolen.

D.have 

  一般过去时:was/were+p.p. 

B.taken away 

  (计算器不能用于数学考试。) Books and newspapers in the reading room mustn’t be taken away.  (阅览室的书籍和报纸不准带走。)  He was awarded first prize in that contest. 

A.speak 

  主动语态:小王邀请你(宾语) Xiao Liu has invited you to a lunch party.

  10.They gave him a medal for his wonderful work.

  含情态动词的被动结构:情态动词+be+p.p.例如: 

  The radio says a wild animal zoo is to ______ in our city. 

  Your watch is going to be mended in an hour.

② She will take good care of the children.(变被动语态) 

C.made for;made by 

      2、一般过去式的被动语态: was / were +  动词的过去分词 

  例如:He can not be found. / I must be paid for this.

  (填must be thrown away) 

② This machine is used ______ the room wet. 

例2.

B.made of;made in 

C.be built 

  It is well known that...众所周知……例如: 

  (填It is said;another bridge;built

D.to keeping 

  ②谓语动词变为“be+及物动词的过去分词”,并通过be的变化来表达出不同的时态; 

      (提示) the car - be being - repair

A.take away 

  ③主动语态的主语变为介词by的宾语,组成介词短语放在被动结构中的谓语动词之后。(有时by短语可以省略)。 

  He was very interested in science.他对科学有极大兴趣。(系表结构) 

  1.We shall discuss the problem at tomorrow's meeting.

2.被动语态的一般疑问句是将一个助动词置于主语之前;否定句是在第一个助动词后加not;特殊疑问句的语序为:疑问词+一般疑问句。例如: 

  主动语态:你不准带走杂志(宾语) You must not take these magazines out of the reading-room.

C.keep 

  —Yes.It's Shanghai. 

③ A lot of new roads ______ built in the west of China. 

C.has 

      7、现在完成时的被动语态:have / has + been +  动词的过去分词 

  (B) am / is / are + going to be +动词的过去分词.

      (提示) the accident - will be - forget

  ①将主动语态的宾语作被动语态的主语;

      2、从语法的角度说,把原句的宾语改成主语。  例1.

C.熟练转换 

      (提示) Has anybody - be - feed

D.be taken away 

  be made from由……制作(发生化学变化) 

[A] 

  8.They won't hold the meeting until next Friday.

  (选B。考查含情态动词的被动语态) 

  It is hoped that...希望…… 

      1、一般现在时的被动语态. am / is / are +  动词的过去分词 

B.明确用法 

  现在进行时:am/is/are+being+p.p. 

D.made for;made in 

  (选D。考查一般现在时的被动语态) 

B.is telling 

  通过上面的例句,可以看出,“被动语态”的构成是:  be +  过去分词 + (by+动作执行者) 

      5、一般将来时的被动语态:

2.be made of由……制作(发生物理变化) 

本文由www.0805.com发布于外语留学,转载请注明出处:8被动语态,2012年6月英语四级翻译答案及解析

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