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2013年6月英语四级考试阅读真题及解析,2015考研

来源:http://www.sswank.com 作者:www.0805.com 时间:2019-11-29 11:04

  2013年上半年的四级考试已结束,以下是对四级阅读的解析及指导,希望能对即将参加四级考试的考生有所帮助。

  第一部分:作文预测

想减肥?试试对着镜子吃饭

No one can avoid being influenced by advertisement. Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose the things we want, for advertising exerts a subtle influence on us.

  这次四级仔细阅读考试出题上依旧遵循之前的基本原则:依照原文自然顺序出题、多以考察细节信息的理解为主、喜欢考察转折等重要逻辑现象处的信息、正确选项基本都是原文有明显来源的改写或是替换后的说法、错误选项迷惑性不强。文章选自《洛杉矶时报》等欧美主流网站,话题与我们日常生活还是比较接近、不难看懂。文字难度与近两年四级基本相近,但可以看出对考生的单词掌握和阅读长句的能力要求较高。不过若是之前系统准备近些年四级阅读的同学,对这次四级阅读考试的文章应不会感觉特别吃力。

  大作文图片类型:1. 柱形图; 2. 曲线图、统计表格、饼形图

Eating with a fork instead of a spoon canhelp you lose weight, new research suggests.

Modern advertising typically bombards the public with slogans and testimonials by celebrities. This approach is designed to appeal the emotions and create artificial needs for products and services.

  下面我们对这次四级考试的几篇典型的仔细阅读进行简单的解析,供大家参考和体会。

  预测话题包括:1. 网络类(网购、微博、微信等新现象);2. 环境类(交通状况、动物/资源保护等)

最新研究显示,吃饭时用叉子不用勺,有助减肥。

To be honest, I don't like advertisements. Yes, Ads do offer us some useful information, but for the most part, they are aiming to persuade people to buy this or that. We can see advertisements almost everywhere every day, printed on newspapers, magazines and running buses, displayed on TV, radio and internet. Also, it's really annoying to be interrupted by telephone marketing calls.

  PassageOne

  应用文考察类型:书信

A study by the University of Florida found that using a fork and eating fromsmaller, less fancy, and even paper plates will help prevent overeating.

But what I hate most is the advertisements aimed at children. There are many advertisements encourage children to buy toys, snacks even games. I think such kind of ads should be restricted or banned. For example, being influenced by advertisements, some children like eating fast food, some children fancy expensive toys, which may pose a threat to their health and life.

  Junk food is everywhere. We’re eating waytoo much of it. Most of us know what we’re doing and yet we do it anyway。

  预测书信种类:建议信、道歉信、请求信、询问信、邀请信、申请信

美国佛罗里达大学的一项研究表明,吃饭时用叉子,或者用小一点的、不那么花哨的盘子,甚至用纸盘子,都能防止吃得过多。

On the other hand, there are many commercials selling books, videos of educational value, organic food, which provide more options and information for public. In a word, I suggest more strict control on advertisements.

  So here's a suggestion offered by tworesearchers at the Rand Corporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol controlpolicies and apply them to where food is sold and how it’s displayed?

  第二部分:部分预测作文范文(跨考教育[微博]英语教研室张莹[微博]老师提醒同学们,划线部分为建议背诵句型,括号内容为可以替换内容)

It also claims that putting mirrors in your dining room will help weight lossbecause they actually make junk food taste worse.

  "Many policy measures to controlobesity (肥胖症)assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and howmuch they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access tohealthier foods," note the two researchers。

  大作文预测话题一:网络类(网购、微博、微信等新现象)

研究还表明,在餐厅放置镜子也有助于减肥,因为镜子能使垃圾食品的口感下降。

  "In contrast," the researcherscontinue, "many regulations that don't assume people make rational choiceshave been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance -- like food --of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems."

图片 1作文素材

The researchers asked 185 undergraduates to choose chocolate cake or a fruitsalad and evaluate the taste.

  The research references studies of people’sbehavior with food and alcohol and results of alcohol restrictions, and thenlists five regulations that the researchers think might be promising if appliedto junk foods. Among them:

  What is explicitlydemonstrated in the above chart is the sales changes of online shopping indomestic market over the period from 2011 to 2015. The turnover of e-commerce

研究人员让185位大学生在巧克力蛋糕和水果沙拉中选择一种食用,并对它们的口感做出评价。

  Density restrictions: licenses to sellalcohol aren't handed out unplanned to all comers but are allotted (分配)based onthe number of places in an area that already sell alcohol. These make alcoholless easy to get and reduce the number of psychological cues to drink。

  saw a substantial gain from approximately 800 billion in 2011 to

Those who ate them in a room with a mirror scored the taste of the junk foodlower than those in a room without one, but it had no effect on the fruitsalad.

  Similarly, the researchers say, beingpresented with junk food stimulates our desire to eat it. So why not limit thedensity of food outlets, particularly ones that sell food rich in emptycalories? And why not limit sale of food in places that aren’t primarily foodstores?

  2500 billion in 2014. Surprisingly, it is predicted that the figure willcontinue to soar dramatically to roughly 3400 billion in2015.

在测试垃圾食品的口感时,有镜组比无镜组的食用口感差,而水果沙拉的口感未受到镜子的影响。

  Display and sales restrictions: Californiahas a rule prohibiting alcohol displays near the cash registers in gasstations, and in most places you can’t buy alcohol at drive-through facilities.At supermarkets, food companies pay to have their wares in places where they'reeasily seen. One could remove junk food to the back of the store and ban themfrom the shelves at checkout lines. The other measures include restrictingportion sizes, taxing and prohibiting special price deals for junk foods, andplacing warning labels on the products。

  We can easily recognize itsadvantages as follows: e-commerce, which isextremely convenient, can save us a great amount of precious time and we canbuy products everywhere you want as long as we can surf online. However, forall the advantages mentioned above, online trading is by no means without itslimitations as listed below: we may be cheated by some online retailers,which might be a potential threat to our bank accounts。

Lead scientist, Dr Ata Jami of the University of Central Florida, said: ‘Aglance in the mirror tells people more than just about their physicalappearance.

  57. What does the author say about junkfood?

  Accordingly, it isimperative for us to take drastic measures. For one thing, we should appeal tothe authorities to make strict legislations to severely punish those who deliberately spoil theinterests of online customers. For another, we should enhance the awarenessof residents that rational purchasing is conducive to our incomemanagement. Only in this way can we maximize the merits and minimize thedemerits of online purchasing。

中央佛罗里达大学的阿塔·杰米博士是研究小组的带头人。他说:“镜子告诉人们的可不止是体态外貌。”

  A) People should be educated not to eat toomuch。

  大作文预测话题二:环境类(交通状况、动物/资源保护等)

‘It enables them to view themselves objectively and helps them to judgethemselves and their behaviors in a same way that they judge others.’

  B) It is widely consumed despite its illreputation。

图片 2作文素材

“镜子使人们可以从一个置身事外的角度观察自己、评价自己,就像他们观察别人、评价别人时那样。”

  C) Its temptation is too strong for peopleto resist。

  Here is a table, telling us an interesting phenomenon. Thereis no doubt that the table displays accidents in one Chinese city. Asis clearly depicted, drivers turning left without due care cause the mostaccidents in this city and the percentage of drivers driving under theinfluence of alcohol enjoys the biggest rise in 2005. Obviously, thedifference manifested by the table should be given more concern。

The mirrors were found to push the subjects to compare and match their ownbehaviours with accepted social standards.

  D) It causes more harm than is generallyrealized。

  What might trigger this affair? For onepart, the general public have failed to realize the importance of abiding bythe traffic regulations and laws (and a big deal of the attention have been distracted by the so-called “great affair”。) Once some driverseasily disregard the traffic signals, so do other drivers who intend to obeythe laws. Moreover, the current state of affairs depicted in the drawing,may have been encouraged, though not justified, by the lack of severe legalpenalty。

该研究发现,镜子能促使受试者用普遍的社会标准来衡量自己,并用它规范自己的行为。

  答案:B

  It is advisable for us to take steps toreverse this current evil trend. On one hand, we should cultivate the awarenessof people .On the other hand, it is high time that more severe and sound lawsand regulations should be introduced to harness and curb this matter. Only inthis way, can we crack the hard nut and embrace a bright future。

The study's authors believe it proves that people don't want to look in themirror when they feel that they are now adhering to those social standards.

  【解析】披着细节题皮的推理题:关于垃圾食品作者说了啥?关键词Junk food定位到第一段:Junk food is everywhere. We’re eating way toomuch of it. Most of us know what we’re doing and yet wedo it anyway。垃圾食品满天飞,吃来吃去太长肥。虽知其害仍不舍,要肥大家一起肥。B的意思是垃圾食品名声虽恶还是被广泛消费,契合原文。另一条思路就是,yet和anyway体现的逻辑相反关系只有B能涵盖了。

图片 3作文素材

研究者认为,这足以证明:当人们觉得自己的行为已经符合社会标准的时候,他们就不会想去看镜子了。

  58. What do the Rand researchers think ofmany of the policy measures to control obesity?

 

When they do look in the mirror, feelings of discomfort and failure areenhanced.

  A) They should be implemented effectively。

  As is seen from the two graphs, it is clear that with the rapidgrowth of U.S. population from 1800 to 1990, the number of itswildlife species no longer existing soared during the same period. Naturally,we can draw the conclusion that the sharp decline of wildlife speciesresulted from the population growth。

而当他们吃着垃圾食品,想要看镜中的自己时,不适感和挫败感就增强了。

  B) They provide misleading information。

  At leastthree fundamental factors could contribute to this phenomenon. To begin with,

Therefore, the presence of the mirror induces a discomfort and lowers theperceived taste of unhealthy food.

  C) They are based on wrong assumptions。

  as the population grows, people consume much more naturalresources, which often leads to excessive hunting. To continue, withthe increase of human activities, modern people take up more andmore space, which has an undesirable impact on other species. Finally,

这时候,镜子的存在引发了人的不适,降低了垃圾食品的口感。

  D) They help people make rational choices。

  the problem of pollution becomes more and more serious with the developmentof modern industry. More and more animals have to adapt themselves to thedecaying environment or move to a totally different place, but not all of themare fortunate enough to survive the changes. 

But, this is only the case if the person selects the food they are eatingbecause they are responsible for that choice.

  答案:C

  Solving this problemcalls for, above all, the government’s efforts to control population growth,

但是,只有当人们自主选择食物时,这个规律才会奏效,因为他们要为自己的选择负责。

  【解析】推理题:关于肥胖控制的很多政策,Rand研究者怎么看?这篇文章最难的一题。由画线关键词定位至第三、四段(都有Rr的发言,表观点)。

  to decrease industrial pollution and to enhance the laws to forbidwildlife hunting. Moreover, common citizens should be aware of thisecological crisis and take on the responsibility of wildlife protection。

The study suggests that mirrors be placed in dining rooms and other eatingspaces so people will start eating more healthily

  So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the RandCorporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply themto where food is sold and how it’s displayed?" Many policy measures to control obesity (肥胖症)assumethat people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat andtherefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods 很多控制肥胖症的政策都是假设人们能够有意识且理性地选择吃什么、怎么吃……【这句话本身无用】" note the two researchers。

  In a word, only when the government and the common people make joint effortscan we hope to find a satisfactory solution to protect wildlife.  

因此该研究建议在餐厅等用餐地点放置镜子,促使人们吃得健康些。

  "In contrast相反【逻辑线索出现】," the researchers continue, "many regulations that don'tassume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to controlalcohol 那些没有假设人们会作出理智选择的法规却成功控酒, a substance -- like food -- of which immoderate consumption leadsto serious health problems."

  书信作文预测:建议信、道歉信、请求信、询问信、邀请信、申请信

The study was published in the Journal of the Association for ConsumerResearch.

  一个“相反”后的成功说明,很多控制肥胖症的政策失败,他们是要做出是负面评价。C的意思正巧是,控肥政策是基于错误假设。

  建议信:

《消费者研究杂志》刊登了这项研究结果。

  59. Why do policymakers of alcohol controlplace density restrictions?

  Write a letter toyour university canteen, making suggestions for improving its service. Youshould write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 。

相关文章推荐阅读>>>>

  A) Few people are able to resist alcohol’stemptations。

  Dear Sir or Madam,

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  B) There are already too many storesselling alcohol。

  I am a student of our university, whooften have meals in our canteen. Generally speaking, our canteen providesquite good food. However, I still have some suggestions for you to makeour canteen more popular among students。

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  C) Drinking strong alcohol can cause socialproblems。

  To begin with, I wonder whether you could provide more varieties of food. We do nothave many options when eating in our canteen now. To continue, somestudents have complained about the price of the food there, would you please

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  D) Easy access leads to customers'over-consumption。

  lower it down?

rl(i���T�36

  答案:D

  I do hope to have a better canteen. And I would be highly gratefulif you could take my suggestions into consideration。

  【解析】细节题:为何控酒政策制定者们要实行浓度限制?定位到第五段:

  Yours sincerely,

  Density restrictions: licenses to sell alcohol aren't handed outunplanned to all comers but are allotted (分配)based on thenumber of places in an area that already sell alcohol. These make alcohol lesseasy to get and reduce the number of psychological cues to drink. 浓度限购可使消费者买酒不易,并减少喝酒的心理暗示。

  Li Ming

  换个角度,之所以这么做,就是因为之前“容易买到酒的途径导致了对酒的过度消费”。

  道歉信:

  60. What is the purpose of California’srule about alcohol display in gas stations?

  Suppose you have accepted Mr. Zhang’s invitation todinner, but you have to change your plan for some reasons. Write a letter inabout 100 words to make an apology to him。

  A) To effectively limit the density ofalcohol outlets。

  Dear Mr. Zhang,

  B) To help drivers to give up the habit ofdrinking。

  Isincerely thank you for inviting me to dinner in yourhouse next Sunday。

  C) To prevent possible traffic jams innearby areas。

  However,now, much to my regret that I may not be able to keepmy promise because I have just been caught serious cold, which requiresme to take a rest for a long time. And I apologize for any inconveniencethis may cause you. If I get better during this time, I will be there ontime。

  D) To get alcohol out of drivers’ immediatesight。

上一页12下一页

  答案:D

  【解析】推理题:加州在汽油站管控酒的展示是出于何目的?定位到最后一段。三句原则做题:

  Display and sales restrictions: California has a rule prohibitingalcohol displays near the cash registers in gas stations, and in most placesyou can’t buy alcohol at drive-through facilities。于是大部分地区你在驾车通过的设施里买不到酒啦 At supermarkets, food companies pay to have their wares in placeswhere they're easily seen. One could remove junk food to the back of the storeand ban them from the shelves at checkout lines. The other measures include restrictingportion sizes, taxing and prohibiting special price deals for junk foods, andplacing warning labels on the products。

  所以,正确答案为“把酒放在司机们的视线之外”。

  61. What is the general guideline the Randresearchers suggest about junk food control?

  A) Guiding people to make rational choicesabout food。

  B) Enhancing people’s awareness of theirown health。

  C) Borrowing ideas from alcohol controlmeasures。

  D. Resorting to economic, legal andpsychological means

  答案:C。

  【解析】从题干可发现,是道变形的主旨题:Rand研究者们对于垃圾食品管控的总体准则是什么?

  不管是找主旨句,还是当细节题做,都会发现关键词Rand researchers首次出现在第二段第一句: So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the RandCorporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply themto where food is sold and how it's displayed? 

  Rand公司的研究人员建议:为啥不借鉴控酒政策并运用到食品展示和售卖区?——这就是全文主旨。

  所以,正确答案为“从控酒措施借鉴想法”。

  (长沙新东方

  王融亮 唐思宇)

 

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