No one can avoid being influenced by advertisement. Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose the things we want, for advertising exerts a subtle influence on us.
大作文图片类型：1. 柱形图； 2. 曲线图、统计表格、饼形图
Eating with a fork instead of a spoon canhelp you lose weight, new research suggests.
Modern advertising typically bombards the public with slogans and testimonials by celebrities. This approach is designed to appeal the emotions and create artificial needs for products and services.
预测话题包括：1. 网络类(网购、微博、微信等新现象)；2. 环境类(交通状况、动物/资源保护等)
To be honest, I don't like advertisements. Yes, Ads do offer us some useful information, but for the most part, they are aiming to persuade people to buy this or that. We can see advertisements almost everywhere every day, printed on newspapers, magazines and running buses, displayed on TV, radio and internet. Also, it's really annoying to be interrupted by telephone marketing calls.
A study by the University of Florida found that using a fork and eating fromsmaller, less fancy, and even paper plates will help prevent overeating.
But what I hate most is the advertisements aimed at children. There are many advertisements encourage children to buy toys, snacks even games. I think such kind of ads should be restricted or banned. For example, being influenced by advertisements, some children like eating fast food, some children fancy expensive toys, which may pose a threat to their health and life.
Junk food is everywhere. We’re eating waytoo much of it. Most of us know what we’re doing and yet we do it anyway。
On the other hand, there are many commercials selling books, videos of educational value, organic food, which provide more options and information for public. In a word, I suggest more strict control on advertisements.
So here's a suggestion offered by tworesearchers at the Rand Corporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol controlpolicies and apply them to where food is sold and how it’s displayed?
It also claims that putting mirrors in your dining room will help weight lossbecause they actually make junk food taste worse.
"Many policy measures to controlobesity (肥胖症)assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and howmuch they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access tohealthier foods," note the two researchers。
"In contrast," the researcherscontinue, "many regulations that don't assume people make rational choiceshave been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance -- like food --of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems."
The researchers asked 185 undergraduates to choose chocolate cake or a fruitsalad and evaluate the taste.
The research references studies of people’sbehavior with food and alcohol and results of alcohol restrictions, and thenlists five regulations that the researchers think might be promising if appliedto junk foods. Among them:
What is explicitlydemonstrated in the above chart is the sales changes of online shopping indomestic market over the period from 2011 to 2015. The turnover of e-commerce
Density restrictions: licenses to sellalcohol aren't handed out unplanned to all comers but are allotted (分配)based onthe number of places in an area that already sell alcohol. These make alcoholless easy to get and reduce the number of psychological cues to drink。
saw a substantial gain from approximately 800 billion in 2011 to
Those who ate them in a room with a mirror scored the taste of the junk foodlower than those in a room without one, but it had no effect on the fruitsalad.
Similarly, the researchers say, beingpresented with junk food stimulates our desire to eat it. So why not limit thedensity of food outlets, particularly ones that sell food rich in emptycalories? And why not limit sale of food in places that aren’t primarily foodstores?
2500 billion in 2014. Surprisingly, it is predicted that the figure willcontinue to soar dramatically to roughly 3400 billion in2015.
Display and sales restrictions: Californiahas a rule prohibiting alcohol displays near the cash registers in gasstations, and in most places you can’t buy alcohol at drive-through facilities.At supermarkets, food companies pay to have their wares in places where they'reeasily seen. One could remove junk food to the back of the store and ban themfrom the shelves at checkout lines. The other measures include restrictingportion sizes, taxing and prohibiting special price deals for junk foods, andplacing warning labels on the products。
We can easily recognize itsadvantages as follows: e-commerce, which isextremely convenient, can save us a great amount of precious time and we canbuy products everywhere you want as long as we can surf online. However, forall the advantages mentioned above, online trading is by no means without itslimitations as listed below: we may be cheated by some online retailers,which might be a potential threat to our bank accounts。
Lead scientist, Dr Ata Jami of the University of Central Florida, said: ‘Aglance in the mirror tells people more than just about their physicalappearance.
57. What does the author say about junkfood?
Accordingly, it isimperative for us to take drastic measures. For one thing, we should appeal tothe authorities to make strict legislations to severely punish those who deliberately spoil theinterests of online customers. For another, we should enhance the awarenessof residents that rational purchasing is conducive to our incomemanagement. Only in this way can we maximize the merits and minimize thedemerits of online purchasing。
A) People should be educated not to eat toomuch。
‘It enables them to view themselves objectively and helps them to judgethemselves and their behaviors in a same way that they judge others.’
B) It is widely consumed despite its illreputation。
C) Its temptation is too strong for peopleto resist。
Here is a table, telling us an interesting phenomenon. Thereis no doubt that the table displays accidents in one Chinese city. Asis clearly depicted, drivers turning left without due care cause the mostaccidents in this city and the percentage of drivers driving under theinfluence of alcohol enjoys the biggest rise in 2005. Obviously, thedifference manifested by the table should be given more concern。
The mirrors were found to push the subjects to compare and match their ownbehaviours with accepted social standards.
D) It causes more harm than is generallyrealized。
What might trigger this affair? For onepart, the general public have failed to realize the importance of abiding bythe traffic regulations and laws (and a big deal of the attention have been distracted by the so-called “great affair”。) Once some driverseasily disregard the traffic signals, so do other drivers who intend to obeythe laws. Moreover, the current state of affairs depicted in the drawing,may have been encouraged, though not justified, by the lack of severe legalpenalty。
It is advisable for us to take steps toreverse this current evil trend. On one hand, we should cultivate the awarenessof people .On the other hand, it is high time that more severe and sound lawsand regulations should be introduced to harness and curb this matter. Only inthis way, can we crack the hard nut and embrace a bright future。
The study's authors believe it proves that people don't want to look in themirror when they feel that they are now adhering to those social standards.
【解析】披着细节题皮的推理题：关于垃圾食品作者说了啥？关键词Junk food定位到第一段：Junk food is everywhere. We’re eating way toomuch of it. Most of us know what we’re doing and yet wedo it anyway。垃圾食品满天飞，吃来吃去太长肥。虽知其害仍不舍，要肥大家一起肥。B的意思是垃圾食品名声虽恶还是被广泛消费，契合原文。另一条思路就是，yet和anyway体现的逻辑相反关系只有B能涵盖了。
58. What do the Rand researchers think ofmany of the policy measures to control obesity?
When they do look in the mirror, feelings of discomfort and failure areenhanced.
A) They should be implemented effectively。
As is seen from the two graphs, it is clear that with the rapidgrowth of U.S. population from 1800 to 1990, the number of itswildlife species no longer existing soared during the same period. Naturally,we can draw the conclusion that the sharp decline of wildlife speciesresulted from the population growth。
B) They provide misleading information。
At leastthree fundamental factors could contribute to this phenomenon. To begin with,
Therefore, the presence of the mirror induces a discomfort and lowers theperceived taste of unhealthy food.
C) They are based on wrong assumptions。
as the population grows, people consume much more naturalresources, which often leads to excessive hunting. To continue, withthe increase of human activities, modern people take up more andmore space, which has an undesirable impact on other species. Finally,
D) They help people make rational choices。
the problem of pollution becomes more and more serious with the developmentof modern industry. More and more animals have to adapt themselves to thedecaying environment or move to a totally different place, but not all of themare fortunate enough to survive the changes.
But, this is only the case if the person selects the food they are eatingbecause they are responsible for that choice.
Solving this problemcalls for, above all, the government’s efforts to control population growth,
to decrease industrial pollution and to enhance the laws to forbidwildlife hunting. Moreover, common citizens should be aware of thisecological crisis and take on the responsibility of wildlife protection。
The study suggests that mirrors be placed in dining rooms and other eatingspaces so people will start eating more healthily
So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the RandCorporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply themto where food is sold and how it’s displayed?" Many policy measures to control obesity (肥胖症)assumethat people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat andtherefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods 很多控制肥胖症的政策都是假设人们能够有意识且理性地选择吃什么、怎么吃……【这句话本身无用】" note the two researchers。
In a word, only when the government and the common people make joint effortscan we hope to find a satisfactory solution to protect wildlife.
"In contrast相反【逻辑线索出现】," the researchers continue, "many regulations that don'tassume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to controlalcohol 那些没有假设人们会作出理智选择的法规却成功控酒， a substance -- like food -- of which immoderate consumption leadsto serious health problems."
The study was published in the Journal of the Association for ConsumerResearch.
59. Why do policymakers of alcohol controlplace density restrictions?
Write a letter toyour university canteen, making suggestions for improving its service. Youshould write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 。
A) Few people are able to resist alcohol’stemptations。
Dear Sir or Madam,
B) There are already too many storesselling alcohol。
I am a student of our university, whooften have meals in our canteen. Generally speaking, our canteen providesquite good food. However, I still have some suggestions for you to makeour canteen more popular among students。
C) Drinking strong alcohol can cause socialproblems。
To begin with, I wonder whether you could provide more varieties of food. We do nothave many options when eating in our canteen now. To continue, somestudents have complained about the price of the food there, would you please
D) Easy access leads to customers'over-consumption。
lower it down?
I do hope to have a better canteen. And I would be highly gratefulif you could take my suggestions into consideration。
Density restrictions: licenses to sell alcohol aren't handed outunplanned to all comers but are allotted (分配)based on thenumber of places in an area that already sell alcohol. These make alcohol lesseasy to get and reduce the number of psychological cues to drink. 浓度限购可使消费者买酒不易，并减少喝酒的心理暗示。
60. What is the purpose of California’srule about alcohol display in gas stations?
Suppose you have accepted Mr. Zhang’s invitation todinner, but you have to change your plan for some reasons. Write a letter inabout 100 words to make an apology to him。
A) To effectively limit the density ofalcohol outlets。
Dear Mr. Zhang,
B) To help drivers to give up the habit ofdrinking。
Isincerely thank you for inviting me to dinner in yourhouse next Sunday。
C) To prevent possible traffic jams innearby areas。
However,now, much to my regret that I may not be able to keepmy promise because I have just been caught serious cold, which requiresme to take a rest for a long time. And I apologize for any inconveniencethis may cause you. If I get better during this time, I will be there ontime。
D) To get alcohol out of drivers’ immediatesight。
Display and sales restrictions: California has a rule prohibitingalcohol displays near the cash registers in gas stations, and in most placesyou can’t buy alcohol at drive-through facilities。于是大部分地区你在驾车通过的设施里买不到酒啦 At supermarkets, food companies pay to have their wares in placeswhere they're easily seen. One could remove junk food to the back of the storeand ban them from the shelves at checkout lines. The other measures include restrictingportion sizes, taxing and prohibiting special price deals for junk foods, andplacing warning labels on the products。
61. What is the general guideline the Randresearchers suggest about junk food control?
A) Guiding people to make rational choicesabout food。
B) Enhancing people’s awareness of theirown health。
C) Borrowing ideas from alcohol controlmeasures。
D. Resorting to economic, legal andpsychological means
不管是找主旨句，还是当细节题做，都会发现关键词Rand researchers首次出现在第二段第一句： So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the RandCorporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply themto where food is sold and how it's displayed?